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Acting Now to End World Poverty. If emotion without reason is blind, then reason without emotion is impotent. The prodigious appetite of the affluent nations for meat means that agribusiness can pay more than those who want to preserve or restore the forest.
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Some 38 percent of the world's grain crop is now fed to animals, as well as large quantities of soybeans. There are three times as many domestic animals on this planet as there are human beings. The combined weight of the world's 1. While we look darkly at the number of babies being born in poorer parts of the world, we ignore the over-population of farm animals, to which we ourselves contribute The energy intensive factory farming methods of the industrialised nations are responsible for the consumption of huge amounts of fossil fuels.
Chemical fertilizers, used to grow the feed crops for cattle in feedlots and pigs and chickens kept indoors in sheds, produce nitrous oxide, another greenhouse gas. Then there is the loss of forests. Everywhere, forest-dwellers, both human and non-human, can be pushed out. Since25 percent of the forests of Central America have been cleared for cattle.
Once cleared, the poor We are not suffering for greater quantity peter will support grazing for a few years; then the graziers must move on. Shrub takes over the abandoned pasture, but the forest does not return.
When the forests are cleared so the cattle can graze, billions of tons of carbon dioxide are released into the atmosphere. Finally, the world's cattle are thought to produce about 20 percent of the methane released into the atmosphere, and methane traps twenty-five times as much heat from the sun as carbon dioxide. Factory farm manure also produces methane because, unlike manured dropped naturally in the fields, it dies not decompose in the presence of oxygen.
All of this amounts to a compelling reason Yet those who, by their purchases, require animals to be killed do not deserve to be shielded from this or any other aspect of the production of the meat they buy.
Thinking through, critically and carefully, what most of us take for granted is, I believe, the chief task of philosophy, and the task that makes philosophy a worthwhile activity.
It is often accompanied by a degrading state of powerlessness. That is a mistake. We go to great lengths to preserve the artistic treasures of earlier human civilisations. It is difficult to imagine any economic gain that we would be prepared to accept as adequate compensation for, for instance, the destruction of the paintings in the Louvre.
How should we compare the aesthetic value of wilderness with that of the paintings in the Louvre? Here, perhaps, judgment does become inescapably subjective; so I shall report my own experiences. I have looked at the paintings in the Louvre, and in many of the other great galleries of Europe and the United States.
I think I have We are not suffering for greater quantity peter reasonable sense of appreciation of the fine arts; yet I have not had, in any museum, experiences that have filled my aesthetic senses in the way that they are filled when I walk in a natural setting and pause to survey the view from a rocky peak overlooking a forested valley, or by a stream tumbling over moss-covered boulders set amongst tall tree-ferns, growing in the shade of the forest canopy, I do not think I am alone in this; for many people, wilderness is the source of the greatest feelings of aesthetic appreciation, rising to an almost mystical intensity.
Animal Liberation is Human Liberation too. Members of the tribe were protected, but people of other tribes could be robbed or killed as one pleased.
Gradually the circle of protection expanded, but as recently as years ago we did not include blacks. So African human beings could be captured, shipped to America, and sold. In Australia white settlers regarded Aborigines as a pest and hunted them down, much as kangaroos are hunted down today. Just as we have progressed beyond the blatantly racist ethic of the era of slavery and colonialism, so we must now progress beyond the speciesist ethic of the era of factory farming, of the use of animals as mere We are not suffering for greater quantity peter tools, of whaling, seal hunting, kangaroo slaughter, and the destruction of wilderness.
We must take the final step in expanding the circle of ethics. It is something that everyone ought to do.
To protest about bullfighting in Spain, the eating of dogs in South Korea, or the slaughter of baby seals in Canada, while continuing to eat eggs from hens who have spent their lives crammed into cages, or veal from calves who have been deprived of their mothers, their proper diet, or the freedom to lie down with their legs extended, is like denouncing apartheid in South Africa while asking your neighbors not to sell their houses to blacks.
Not supporting animal abuse — and persuading others not to support it — is. Why Our Food Choices Matter.
A pig producer who keeps an animal of comparable intelligence in this manner, however, is more likely to be rewarded with a tax concession or, in some countries, a direct government subsidy. We get back less than 5 percent of what we put in. Human beings have the power to continue to oppress other species forever, or until we make this planet unsuitable for living beings.
Will our tyranny continue, proving that we really are the selfish tyrants that the most cynical of poets and philosophers have always said we are? Or will we rise to the challenge and prove our capacity for genuine altruism by ending our ruthless exploitation of the species in our power, not because we are forced to do so by rebels or terrorists, but because we recognize that our position is morally indefensible?
The way in which we answer this question depends on the way in which each one of us, individually, answers it.
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We had intended to surprise my brother; but had not caleulated on the scene I was to Joe Kelly and a Mr. Peter Alley wore fast asleep in their chairs, close to the wall.
a scene before, it would have almost terrified me ; but it was nothing more Tho piper was taken away senseless, but my brother would not suffer either. We have only two Sorts of this Plant in England, viz.
H. The large flowering St. Peter's- wort from Majorca, with small warted Leaves. small Tufts, and not suffer 'd to run too much, which often prevents its flowering, by having too because they contain a greater Quantity of nitrous and sulphureous Matter than the others.
and a sixteenth recently blown down, or (may we not conjecture?) shivered by the voice of God. Pococke also remarks, that " the young cedars are not easily known from pines. I observed, they bear a greater quantity of fruit than the large ones. I am sorry that my time will suffer me only to glance at one in chap.