Prison rape commonly refers to the rape of inmates in prison by other inmates or prison staff. Men in jailHuman Rights Watch estimated that at leastinmates had been raped while incarcerated in the United States. A meta-analysis published in found a prevalence rate of 1. Research has shown that juveniles incarcerated with adults are five times more likely to report being victims of sexual assault than Men in jail in juvenile facilities,  and the suicide rate of juveniles in adult jails is 7.
In the United States, public awareness of the phenomenon of prison rape is a relatively recent development and estimates to its prevalence have varied widely for decades. In Carl Weiss and David James Friar wrote that 46 million Americans would one day be incarcerated; of that number, they claimed, 10 million would be raped. A estimate from the Federal Bureau of Prisons conjectured that between Men in jail and 20 percent of inmates had been sexually assaulted.
Studies in and both Men in jail that the rate was somewhere between 12 and 14 percent; the study, by Cindy Struckman-Johnsonconcluded that 18 percent of assaults were carried out by prison staff.
A study by Daniel Lockwood put the number at around 23 percent for maximum security prisons in New York. Christine Saum's survey of inmates showed 5 had been sexually assaulted. Reported prison rape cases have drastically risen in recent years, although this may be partially attributed to an increase in counseling and reports. According to the Bureau of Justice Statistics, around 80, women and men a year get sexually abused in American correctional facilities.
The statistical information highlighted that an estimated of 4. More specifically, around 29, prisoners reported an incident regarding another inmate, 34, prisoners reported an incident involving staff that worked at the facility, and 5, inmates reported an incident involving both. Rates reported by female inmates were higher than male inmates, higher among African American inmates than Caucasian inmates, and lower among inmates ages thirty five or older than inmates ages twenty to twenty four.
In addition, Juvenile inmates ages sixteen to seventeen in adult prisons did not have significant higher rates of sexual victimization in comparison to adult inmates. Among juveniles inmates in the same age range, 3. Furthermore, Inmates who reported their sexual orientation as gay, lesbian, bisexual, or other has the highest rates of sexual assault within the period of this survey — Out of inmates who identify as non-heterosexual, During andthe U.
The National Survey of Youth in Custody provided an estimate of youth reporting sexual victimization in juvenile facilities through computerized self-interviewing technology. This survey was first conducted in June and the third data was collected in The collected data highlighted that sexual assault in female-only juvenile facilities 5. Youth-on-youth sexual assault was lowest 1.
Youth reported a 5. To conclude, rates of staff sexual misconduct were highest in facilities where youth perceived the facility staff to be unfair According to the report conducted by the Bureau of Justice Statistics in —12, inmates with serious psychological distress reported high rates of inmate-on-inmate and staff sexual assault.
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For each measured subgroups sex, race or Hispanic origin, body mass index, sexual orientation, and offenseinmates with serious psychological distress reported higher rates of inmate-on-inmate Men in jail victimization than inmates without mental health problems. This statistical information is very important due to the very complex repercussions that sexual assault and rape can cause to an individual.
According Men in jail the data provided by the Bureau of Justice and Statistics, Inmates identified with serious psychological distress reported high overall rates of sexual victimization. Serious psychological distress was identified on inmates through the use of the K6 screening test. The test consisted of six questions on how often had the inmates felt nervous, hopeless, restless, depressed, effortless, and worthless in the past 30 days. A summary score was added to three categories: State and federal inmates identified with serious psychological distress that were sexually victimized by another inmate were an estimated 6.
Male Rape in the U.
S" on April 17, where they conducted extensive research for three years to expose the problem of male rape in United States prisons. The information provided in the book was collected from over prisoners among thirty-four states.
The Human Rights Watch included a specific description of the psychological effects that rape has on Men in jail of sexual victimization, stating "Victims of prison rape commonly report nightmares, deep Men in jail, shame, loss of self-esteem, self-hatred, and considering or attempting suicide. Some of them also describe a marked increase in anger and a tendency towards violence.
In Patricia Resick's article titled, "The Trauma of Rape and the Criminal Justice System", she addresses a therapy study of fear in rape victims and states, "it was not uncommon for women who were ten or twenty years postrape to seek help for continuing rape-related problems.
A prevalent issue that occurs because of prison rape is the transmission of sexually transmitted infectionsincluding HIV. According to the U. Especially for the receptive partner, outcomes of coerced sex tear the membrane of the anus or vagina and cause profuse bleeding. Many reports of sexual abuse of either coerced vaginal or anal intercourse remain unreported. It is important to note, "racial and ethnic discrimination, low socioeconomic status, migrant status, mental illness, and housing instability can also, independently or with each other, increase the risk of detention and HIV infection".
Transgender people notoriously, "face high risks of HIV transmission and incarceration as a Men in jail of criminalization, discrimination in health settings, punitive law enforcement, and social marginalization".
Women that are transgender, "are [specifically] subject to high levels of police abuse, including profiling as sex workers and sexual exploitation and physical and verbal abuse from guards and male inmates while in detention". Mass overcrowding has become a serious issue within federal and state prisons, which greatly contributes to the prevalence of sexual abuse.
The prison population has dramatically increased in the s due to policies such as increasing sentencing laws and the War on Drugs. Released individuals can easily Men in jail an STD to others within the larger society. Therefore, it is crucial to prevent the transmission of infectious diseases within prisons. There are rarely any resources available for the prevention of STD transmission.
Some systems, like city and county jail systems, do not actively seek to identify and treat inmates with STDs. In prison rape, the perpetrator and victim are almost always the same sex due to the gender-segregated nature of prison confinement. As such, a host of issues regarding sexual orientation and gender roles are associated with the topic. Victims, commonly referred to as "punks" or "bitches", may or may not be seen as homosexual.
Moreover, although "punks" are Men in jail into a sexual arrangement with an aggressor in exchange for protection, these men generally consider themselves heterosexual.
Along with the bribe for protection, both male and female inmates sell sex for money, or additional reasons such as bribery or blackmail. According to the Bureau of Justice Statistics BJS study, in 30 percent of the inmate-on-inmate incidents, victims were talked into the sexual encounter.
Male sexual victimization was more frequently perpetrated by the staff, Men in jail the perpetrator for female inmates was more frequently another inmate. This discrepancy in sexual assault between genders could be linked lack of reporting by the inmates. A recent study found that "only approximately one quarter of the male inmates and one tenth of the female inmates reported their perceived victimization to a correctional officer or a prison official.