Researchers used a consensual methods approach to identify negative and positive factors across 8 domains. Negative factors were associated with families, schools, religious institutions, and community or neighborhood; positive factors were associated with the youth's own identity development, peer networks, and involvement in the LGBTQ community.
Efforts should work towards reducing and eliminating the prejudicial sentiments often present in the institutions and situations that LGBTQ youth encounter. These negative outcomes are not inevitable as a result of a sexual minority status Diamond, but their occurrence may increase due to the discrimination, marginalization, and isolation that are often associated with being LGBTQ Remadefi, ; Savin-Williams, Despite the increasing acceptance of LGBTQ persons in the US, being a young person who is a sexual minority can still be difficult in a society largely oriented toward heterosexuality Meyer, Sexual minority youth can experience difficulties in multiple contexts.
Finally, the larger social environment may affect the well-being of LGBT youth. The research described above has been valuable in identifying the difficulties experienced by sexual minority youth and the contexts in which these experiences take place Birkett et al. Homosexual boyfrends work hard for promotion, this literature suffers from two limitations. First, many studies narrowly focus on a single domain such as school or family.
Such an approach may not fully capture the extent or multiplicity of negative factors affecting the well-being of LGBTQ youth. The second limitation Homosexual boyfrends work hard for promotion the scant attention devoted to investigating positive factors that may contribute to LGBTQ youth well-being Bouris et al. A handful of studies have begun to examine positive factors such as parental support Ryan et al.
Identifying and acknowledging these positive factors balances the picture of LGBTQ youth that emerges from an overly problem-focused research literature.
An approach that contextualizes individuals within increasingly broader systems may be a useful way to describe how multiple systems affect the well-being of LGBTQ youth. For example, Brofenbrenner'secological perspective argues that human development is largely shaped by interconnected environmental systems that include the people's immediate e. Brofenbrenner further suggests this Homosexual boyfrends work hard for promotion is bidirectional and emphasizes that the individual shapes his or her microsystem or the immediate environment.
Incorporating a person's influence within the immediate environment is useful for understanding adolescent development in general but Homosexual boyfrends work hard for promotion be particularly beneficial when examining the relationship between multiple contexts that may be unsupportive of same-sex sexuality and how sexual minority youth cope with and respond to these contexts. Equally important is using research methods that approximate an ecological perspective of well-being for LGBTQ youth.
Qualitative research methods are appropriate for this for several reasons. First, they can provide a rich understanding of the contexts and experiences of sexual minority youth from their perspectives and in their own words. Finally, qualitative methods offer the potential for representing human agency or how individuals express their choices and actions in the world Reissman, This aspect of qualitative research may be particularly important when doing research with marginalized populations who may be perceived as lacking visibility and power.
Using qualitative analysis methods, we describe these factors and the related contexts in which they occur. A better understanding of these factors may help to identify Homosexual boyfrends work hard for promotion components for effective health and mental health prevention interventions for this population. This includes identifying positive factors that can be enhanced and negative factors whose effects might be ameliorated in service of reducing the challenges faced by LGBTQ youth.
Parental consent was not required for participation. We recruited 14 to19 year olds, who spoke English, and self-identified as gay, lesbian, bisexual, transgender, queer or questioning one's sexual or gender identity LGBTQ. Youth self-selected to join the study and some chose to participate even if they did not meet the core recruitment criteria see below. Participants ranged in age from 14 to 24 with almost half indicating they were 16 or 17 years old.